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TM + Medizin

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TM + Psychologie

TM + Soziologie

TM im Vergleich

Effektivität+Effizienz (1)

Effizienz (2): Meditationstiefe

Kritik und Risiken 1

Kritik und Risiken 2



Transzendentale Meditation - abstracts

 ACTH and beta-endorphin in transcendental meditation.

[Transcendental meditation, autogenous training and hypertension (letter) (see  comments)]

A controlled study of the effects of the  Transcendental Meditation program on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure.

Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans.

Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of transcendental meditation.

Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of  "consciousness itself"

Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.

Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four  months' practice of  transcendental meditation (TM).

 [Dynamic features of the modified state of consciousness during transcendental meditation]

Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: social change, collective consciousness, and the  TM-Sidhi program.

Acute effects of transcendental meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults.

Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program.

Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a  psychoneuroendocrine mechanism.

 Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program.

Meditation and psychotherapy [editorial] [see comments]

Autonomic changes while mentally repeating two syllables-one meaningful and the other neutral.

 Autonomic and EEG patterns distinguish transcending from other experiences during Transcendental Meditation

 Meditation in association with psychosis.

Autonomic patterns during  respiratory suspensions: possible markers of  Transcendental Consciousness.

 Serum hormonal concentrations following transcendental meditation—potential role of gamma aminobutyric acid.

Meditation: a modulator of the immune response to physical stress? A brief  report.

Use of transcendental meditation to relieve stress and promote health.

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice.

Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and transcendental  meditation (TM) practice: the basis for a neural model of TM practice.

 The fourth state of consciousness: the Thuriya Avastha.

“Meditieren schützt Herz und Gefäße”, “Yoga senkt den Blutdruck”


TM-Abstracts neuren Datums aus MEDLINE

ACTH and beta-endorphin in transcendental meditation

 Physiol Behav 1998 Jun 1; 64(3): 311-5    (ISSN: 0031-9384)

 Infante JR; Peran F; Martinez M; Roldan A; Poyatos R; Ruiz C; Samaniego F; Garrido F

Clinical Analysis and Immunology Service, Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, Granada, Spain.

 We have evaluated the effect of Transcendental Meditation ™ on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal axis diurnal rhythms through the determination of hormone levels. Blood samples were taken at 0900  hours. and at 2000 hours. These samples were taken from 18 healthy volunteers who regularly practice TM and from nine healthy non-meditators. Cortisol, beta-endorphin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone  (ACTH) were measured at both hours. TM practitioners showed no diurnal rhythm for ACTH and for beta-endorphin (ACTH, pg/mL, mean +/- SE; 13.8+/-1.2 - 12.1+/-1.5/beta-endorphin, pg/mL;  14.4+/-1.5 - 17.2+/-1.9, at 0900 hours and 2000 hours, respectively), in contrast to control subjects, who showed normal diurnal rhythm for these hormones and for cortisol (ACTH, pg/mL; 19.4+/-1.9 -  11.9+/-2.2/beta-endorphin, pg/mL; 25.4+/-1.7 - 17.7+/-1.1/Cortisol, ng/mL; 201.4+/-13.2 - 71.3+/-6.5,  at 0900-2000 hours, respectively, p < 0.01 in the three cases). Practitioners of TM with similar anxiety  levels to those of the control group showed a different pattern in the daytime secretion of pituitary  hormones. TM thus appears to have a significant effect on the neuroendocrine axis. Because cortisol levels  had a normal pattern in the TM group, these results may be due to a change in feedback sensitivity caused by this mental technique.


[Transcendental meditation, autogenous training and hypertension (letter) (see  comments)]

[Transcendental meditasjon, autogen trening og hypertensjon.]

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1998 Mar 30; 118(9): 1463    (ISSN: 0029-2001)

 Alnaes R

Comment in: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1998 May 20; 118(13):2064

 A controlled study of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on cardiovascular  reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure.

Int J Neurosci 1997 Jan; 89(1-2): 15-28    (ISSN: 0020-7454)

 Wenneberg SR; Schneider RH; Walton KG; Maclean CR; Levitsky DK; Salerno JW; Wallace RK; Mandarino JV; Rainforth MV; Waziri R

 Department of Physiological and Biological Sciences, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA.

 Cardiovascular responses to stress reactivity has been proposed as a risk factor for hypertension. In this study, we evaluated the effects of stress reduction on both laboratory cardiovascular reactivity and  ambulatory blood pressure in real life on 39 normotensive male subjects who were pretested for   ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity to stress using a battery of laboratory stressors.   Thereafter, subjects were randomly assigned to practice either the Transcendental Meditation (TM)   technique or a cognitive-based stress education control (SEC) for four months. After 4 months, there  was  no change in cardiovascular response to stressors between the TM and control groups. However,  the  subjects regularly practicing TM demonstrated a significant reduction of 9 mm Hg (p < .04) in  average  ambulatory DBP compared to controls. Since ambulatory BP monitoring has been shown to be a better  predictor of cardiovascular complications of hypertension than clinic BP, this finding may have  important implications for primary prevention of CVD in normotensive subjects.


Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans.

 Stroke 2000 Mar; 31(3): 568-73    (ISSN: 0039-2499)

Castillo-Richmond A; Schneider RH; Alexander CN; Cook R; Myers H; Nidich S; Haney C; Rainforth M; Salerno J

 Center for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management, College of             Maharishi Vedic Medicine, Fairfield, Iowa 52557, USA.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: African Americans suffer disproportionately higher cardiovascular  disease mortality rates than do whites. Psychosocial stress influences the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a valid surrogate measure for coronary  atherosclerosis, is a predictor of coronary outcomes and stroke, and is associated with psychosocial stress factors. Stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program decreases coronary heart  disease risk factors and cardiovascular mortality in African Americans. B-mode ultrasound is useful for the  noninvasive evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: This  randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of the TM program on carotid IMT in hypertensive African American men and  women, aged >20 years, over a 6- to 9-month period. From the initially enrolled 138 volunteers, 60 subjects completed pretest and posttest carotid IMT data. The assigned interventions were either the TM  program or a health education group. By use of B-mode ultrasound, mean maximum IMT from 6 carotid segments was used to determine pretest and posttest IMT values. Regression analysis and ANCOVA  were performed. RESULTS: Age and pretest IMT were found to be predictors of posttest IMT values and were used as covariates. The TM group showed a significant decrease of -0.098 mm (95% CI -0.  198 to 0.003 mm) compared with an  increase of 0.054 mm (95% CI -0.05 to 0.158 mm) in the control group (P=0.038, 2-tailed).  CONCLUSIONS: Stress reduction with the TM program is associated with  reduced carotid  atherosclerosis compared with health education in hypertensive African Americans.  Further research with this stress-reduction technique is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.


Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of transcendental meditation.

 Physiol Behav 1996 Mar; 59(3): 399-402    (ISSN: 0031-9384)

Jevning R; Anand R; Biedebach M; Fernando G

 California State University, Long Beach, CA 90840, USA.

Previous blood flow measurements in this laboratory have indicated increased nonrenal nonhepatic  blood  flow during behaviorally induced rest states, especially during the stylized mental technique of  transcendental meditation (TM). We have hypothesized that increased cerebral blood flow (CBF)  may  account for most of the increased nonrenal nonhepatic blood flow during TM. In this report we  describe  increased frontal and occipital CBF in TM determined by the electrical impedance  plethysmographic  methodology known as rheoencephalography (REG), which allows noninvasive,  nondisturbing, continuous  CBF monitoring. We also report high correlation between increased CBF  and decreased cerebrovascular  resistance (CVR) during TM, suggesting that a contributing vascular  mechanism to the increased CBF may  be decreased CVR. Because only a small amount of stage 1  sleep was observed during TM and because stage 1 sleep has been reported to be accompanied by  decreased CBF, we believe that sleep did not  contribute to the CBF increase. The data of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that blood flow  changes during TM comprise a patterned response  subserving needs of increased cerebral activity.

Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of "consciousness  itself"

Int J Neurosci 2000; 100(1-4): 77-89    (ISSN: 0020-7454)

Travis F; Pearson C

 Psychology Department, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA.

This paper explores subjective reports and physiological correlates of the experience of "consciousness  itself"--self awareness isolated from the processes and objects of experience during Transcendental  Meditation practice. Subjectively, this state is characterized by the absence of the very framework (time, space, and body sense) and content (qualities of inner and outer perception) that define waking  experiences. Physiologically, this state is distinguished by the presence of apneustic breathing, autonomic  orienting at the onset of breath changes, and increases in the frequency of peak EEG power. A model, called the junction point model, is presented that integrates pure consciousness with waking, dreaming, or  sleeping. It could provide a structure to generate a coherent program of research to test the full range of consciousness and so enable us to understand what it means to be fully human.


Die Abbildung zeigt eine 40-sek. Aufzeichnung der Atemrate (BR: Ausatmen ist down), Herzrate (HR), der  Hautleitfähigkeit (EDA-electrodermal activity: down ist Zunahme der Hautleitfähigkeit und der sympathischen Aktivität)  and der Herzrate (HR: up ist Zunahme der Herzrate). In der Mitte der Abbildung eine 16-Sek.-Periode apneustischer  Atmung. Sie beginnt mit Ausatmen und endet mit Ausatmen, was eine langsame Einatmung während der gesamten Zeit  indiziert. Die Kurve der Atemrate ist flach, weil der Thermistor sehr langsames Einatmen nicht erfassen kann. Zu Beginn der apneustischen Atemperiode erfolgt eine EDA and HR-response.


Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary  artery disease.

Am J Cardiol 1996 Apr 15; 77(10): 867-70    (ISSN: 0002-9149)

 Zamarra JW; Schneider RH; Besseghini I; Robinson DK; Salerno JW

The Department of Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo, USA.

 Twenty-one patients with documented coronary artery disease were tested at baseline by exercise  tolerance testing, and assigned to either stress reduction using the Transcendental Meditation (TM)   program or to a wait-list control, After 8 months, the TM group had a 14.7% increase in exercise  tolerance, an 11.7% increase in maximal workload, an 18% delay in onset of ST-segment depression, and  significant reductions in rate-pressure product at 3 and 6 minutes, and at maximal exercise  compared with the control group.


Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four  months'  practice of transcendental meditation (TM).

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994 Nov 30; 746: 381-4    (ISSN: 0077-8923)

 MacLean CR; Walton KG; Wenneberg SR; Levitsky DK; Mandarino JV; Waziri R; Schneider RH         

 Department of Physiology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa 52557.

 [Dynamic features of the modified state of consciousness during transcendental meditation]

[Dinamicheskie osobennosti modifitsirovannogo sostoianiia soznaniia pri transtsendental'noi meditatsii.]

 Biull Eksp Biol Med 1996 Feb; 121(2): 128-30    (ISSN: 0365-9615)

Istratov EN; Liubimov NN; Orlova TV

 Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: social change, collective  consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program.

Psychol Rep 1995 Jun;76 (3 Pt 2): 1171-93    (ISSN: 0033-2941)

Assimakis PD; Dillbeck MC

 University of Crete, Athens, Greece.

Two replication studies test in Canada a field theory of the effect of consciousness on social change.  The  exogenous variable is the number of participants in the largest North American group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, in Iowa. The first study indicated a significant reduction  in violent deaths (homicide, suicide, and motor vehicle fatalities), using both time  series intervention analysis  and transfer function analysis methods, in weeks following change in the  exogenous variable during the  period 1983 to 1985. The second study, using time series intervention  analysis, gave during and after  intervention periods a significant improvement in quality of life on an  index composed of the behavioral  variables available on a monthly basis for Canada from 1972 to  1986-homicide, suicide, motor vehicle  fatalities, cigarette consumption, and workers' days lost due to  strikes. Implications of the findings for theory and social policy are noted briefly.


Acute effects of transcendental meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults.

Psychosom Med 1999 Jul-Aug; 61(4): 525-31    (ISSN: 0033-3174)

Barnes VA; Treiber FA; Turner JR; Davis H; Strong WB

 Georgia Institute for Prevention of Human Diseases and Accidents, Medical College of Georgia,                                  Augusta 30912, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Increased peripheral vasoconstriction (ie, total peripheral resistance, or TPR) has been  implicated as playing an important role in the early development of essential hypertension. Some studies have demonstrated that Transcendental Meditation (TM) reduces high blood pressure, but the  hemodynamic adjustments behind these blood pressure reductions have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary investigation of the acute effects of TM on TPR. METHODS:  Subjects were 32 healthy adults (16 women and 16 men; 30 white and two African American; mean age, 46.4 +/- 3.9 years). Subjects were divided into a TM group of long-term TM practitioners (eight white  women, nine white men, and one African American man; mean years of twice-daily TM practice, 22.4 +/- 6.7) and a control group (eight white women, five white men, and one African American man). three  conditions: 20 minutes of rest with eyes open (all subjects), 20 minutes of TM (TM group), and 20 minutes of eyes-closed relaxation (control group). RESULTS: During eyes-open rest, the TM group had decreases  in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and TPR, compared with increases in the control group (SBP: -2.5 vs.  +2.4 mm  Hg, p < .01; TPR: -0.7 vs. +0.5 mm Hg/liter per minute, p < .004). During TM, there was a  greater decrease in SBP due to a concomitantly greater decrease in TPR compared with the control group during eyes-closed relaxation (SBP: -3.0 vs. +2.1 mm Hg, p < .04; TPR: -1.0 vs. +0.3 mm Hg/liter per  minute, p < .03). CONCLUSIONS: TPR decreased significantly during TM. Decreases in vasoconstrictive tone during TM may be the hemodynamic mechanism responsible for reduction of high  blood pressure over time. The results of this study provide a preliminary contribution to the understanding of the underlying hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the beneficial influence of TM on  cardiovascular risk factors.


Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term  practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program.

Sleep 1997 Feb; 20(2): 102-10    (ISSN: 0161-8105)

 Mason LI; Alexander CN; Travis FT; Marsh G; Orme-Johnson DW; Gackenbach J; Mason DC;                                Rainforth M; Walton KG

Maharishi University of Management, Department of Psychology, Fairfield, Iowa 52557, USA.

 Standard ambulatory night sleep electroencephalograph (EEG) of 11 long-term practitioners of the   Transcendental Meditation (TM) program reporting "higher states of consciousness" during sleep  (the  experimental group) was compared to that of nine short-term practitioners and 11 non-practitioners. EEG  tracings during stages 3 and 4 sleep showed the experimental group to have: 1)  theta-alpha activity  simultaneously with delta activity and 2) decreased chin electromyograph (EMG)  during deep sleep (p =  0.002) compared to short-term practitioners. Spectral analysis fast Fourier  transform (FFT) data of the  first three cycles showed that: 3) the experimental subjects had significantly greater theta 2 (6-8 Hz)-alpha  1 (8-10 Hz) relative power during stages 3 and 4 than the combined control groups [t(30) = 5.5, p = 0.0000008] with no difference in time in delta; 4) there was a graded difference across groups during  stages 3 and 4 in theta 2-alpha 1 power, with experimentals having greater power than short-term practitioners, who in turn had greater power than non-practitioners [t(30) = 5.08, p = 0.00002]; and 5)  experimentals also had increased rapid eye movement (REM) density during REM periods compared to short-term practitioners (p = 0.04). Previous studies have found increased theta-alpha EEG activity during  reported periods of "transcendental consciousness" during the TM technique. In the Vedic tradition, as  described by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, transcendental consciousness is the first of a sequence of higher states. The maintenance of transcendental consciousness along with deep sleep is said to be a distinctive  criterion of further, stabilized higher states of consciousness. The findings of this study are interpreted as physiological support for this model.


Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine  mechanism.

J Altern Complement Med 1995 Fall; 1(3): 263-83    (ISSN: 1075-5535)

Walton KG; Pugh ND; Gelderloos P; Macrae P

 Department of Chemistry, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, USA.Hemodynamic functioning was assessed immediately before and during

 Our objective was to identify endocrine-related mechanisms capable of mediating preventive effects of  stress reduction in hypertensive heart disease. Since beneficial effects of stress reduction accrue over time,  this cross-sectional, descriptive study sought differences between healthy students not practicing a  systematic technique for reducing stress (the average stress, or AS, group, n = 33) and a similar group who  for 8.5 years had practiced the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique, used widely to reduce stress (the low stress, or LS, group, n = 22). The two groups of students, matched for age and area of study,  performed timed collections of urine that included (separately) the entire waking and sleeping portions of 1  day. They also completed the Profile of Mood States and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, self-report  instruments sensitive to subjective level of stress. Urine samples were analyzed for adrenocortical steroids by radioimmunoassay, for Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Zn2+ by atomic absorption spectrometry, and for  neurotransmitter metabolites by reverse-phase, high-performance, liquid chromatography, and spectrophotometry. The two groups differed significantly on most measures. Specifically, the LS group was  lower in cortisol and aldosterone and higher in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) and the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Excretion of sodium, calcium, zinc, and the  norepinephrine metabolite, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), was also lower in this group, as were Na+/K+ ratio, mood disturbance, and anxiety. In women practicing TM, cortisol correlated inversely and DS  directly with number of months of TM practice. The results identify improvements in mood state, adrenocortical activity, and kidney function as probable factors in the preventive and treatment effects of  stress reduction. Because suboptimal levels of these parameters result from chronic, subjective stress, the  findings add mechanistic support to the contention that hypertensive heart disease is avoidable, even in modern industrialized societies.


Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program.

 Psychosom Med 1998 Jan-Feb; 60(1): 38-41    (ISSN: 0033-3174)

Schneider RH; Nidich SI; Salerno JW; Sharma HM; Robinson CE; Nidich RJ; Alexander CN

 Center for Health and Aging Studies, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa                           52557-1028, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress or free radical activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of   atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases associated with aging. Because psychosocial stress has  been  shown to increase oxidative stress, we conducted an exploratory study to investigate the effects of stress  reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program on serum lipid peroxide levels in  elderly subjects.  METHOD: Forty-one normally healthy subjects (aged 56 to 74 years, average 67  years) were recruited  from the same Midwest city. Eighteen were long-term practitioners of the TM  program (average 16.5 years). Twenty-three controls were not practicing a formal stress management technique. Venous blood  samples were analyzed for lipid peroxides by the TBARS assay. A dietary questionnaire was used to assess fat intake, red meat consumption, antioxidant vitamin supplementation, and smoking. Differences  between groups and subgroups were analyzed by t test, and correlations. RESULTS: Significantly lower serum levels of lipid peroxides were found in the TM practitioners compared with controls (-15%, p =  .026). No significant differences were found between groups on smoking, fat intake, or vitamin supplementation. TM practitioners also had lower red meat consumption but matched subgroup analysis  and partial correlations did not confirm a relationship between red meat intake and lipid peroxide levels. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that lower serum lipid peroxide levels may be  associated with stress reduction using the Transcendental Meditation technique. Prospective controlled  trials are needed to confirm that this effect is because of TM practice rather than other lifestyle factors, such as diet.


Meditation and psychotherapy [editorial] [see comments]

 Br J Psychiatry 1998 Sep; 173: 193-5    (ISSN: 0007-1250)

Snaith P

Comment in: Br J Psychiatry 1999 Jan; 174:79

 Autonomic changes while mentally repeating two syllables-one meaningful and the other neutral.

 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998 Jan; 42(1): 57-63    (ISSN: 0019-5499)

Telles S; Nagarathna R; Nagendra HR     

 Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, K. G. Nagar, Bangalore.

Autonomic and respiratory variables were recorded in 12 volunteers in three types of sessions (1).  Before,  during and after a test period of mentally repeating a meaningful syllable 'OM' (MOM session) (2). A similar session except that the test period was spent mentally repeating a neutral work, 'one' (COM  session) (3). A session with non-targeted thinking (NT session). The subjects were familiar with both syllables, and had been meditating on 'OM' for 20 days. During the test periods of both MOM and COM  sessions the rate of respiration (RR) and heart rate (HR) decreased significantly [(two factor ANOVA (RR), paired t test (RR. HR)]. Compared to the pre period. Mental repetition of 'OM' (but not 'one')  caused a significant decrease in skin resistance level (SRL) (paired t test). This was taken to mean that the  subject recognized the significance of the syllable. No significant change occurred during NT sessions.


Autonomie and EEG patterns distinguish transcending from other experiences during  Transcendental Meditation practice

Int J Psychophysiol 42 (2001) 1 - 9

Travis F

 PsychoIogy Department, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA 52557, USAReceived 13 October 2000; received in revised form 4 December 2000; accepted 12 December 2000


This study compared EFG and autonomic patterns during transcending to ‘other’ experiences during  Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice. To correlate specific meditation experiences with physiological measures, the experimenter rang a bell three times during the TM session. Subjects categorized their  experiences around each bell ring. Transcending, in comparison to ‘other’ experiences during TM practice, was marked by:

    (1) significantly lower breath rates;

    (2) higher respiratory Sinus arrhythmia amplitudes;

    (3) higher EEG alpha amplitude; and

     (4) higher alpha coherence.

In addition, skin conductance responses to the experimenter-initiated bell rings were larger during transcending . These findings suggest that monitoring patterns of physiological variables may index dynamically changing inner experiences during meditation practice. This could allow a more precise  investigation into the nature of meditation experiences and a more accurate comparison of meditation states with other eyes-closed conditions. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Transcendental Meditation; Alpha power; Coherence; Respiratory sinus arrhythmia; Breath rate; Consciousness


Meditation in association with psychosis.

 J Med Assoc Thai 1999 Sep; 82(9): 925-30    (ISSN: 0125-2208)

Chan-Ob T; Boonyanaruthee V

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

 This study analysed the correlation between contemplation and psychosis from three cases of patients   presenting psychotic symptoms subsequent to practising meditation. Sleep loss following a wrong doing in  meditation was found to be the main cause in the first two cases, and drug withdrawal was found to be the  principal factor in causing a psychotic eruption in the third case. In this last case, sleep  deprivation  subsequent to meditation was only a minor influence. Discussion regarding the correlation between meditation and psychosis is presented in this study.


Autonomic patterns during respiratory suspensions: possible markers of  Transcendental  Consciousness.

Psychophysiology 1997 Jan; 34(1): 39-46    (ISSN: 0048-5772)

Travis F; Wallace RK

 Department of Psychology, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA. In two experiments, we investigated physiological correlates of transcendental consciousness during   Transcendental Meditation sessions. In the first, experimenter-initiated bells, based on observed physiological patterns, marked three phases during a Transcendental Meditation session in 16 individuals.  Interrater reliability between participant and experimenter classification of experiences at each bell was  quite good. During phases including transcendental consciousness experiences, skin conductance responses  and heart rate deceleration occurred at the onset of respiratory suspensions or reductions in breath volume.  In the second experiment, this autonomic pattern was compared with that during forced breath holding. Phasic autonomic activity was significantly higher at respiratory suspension onset than at breath holding  onset. These easily measured markers could help focus research on the existence and characteristics of transcendental consciousness.

 Serum hormonal concentrations following transcendental meditation—potential role of gamma  aminobutyric acid.

Med Hypotheses 1995 Apr; 44(4): 287-91    (ISSN: 0306-9877)

Elias AN; Wilson AF

 Department of Medicine, University of California Medical Center, Irvine, Orange, USA.

Transcendental mediation (TM) is a stylized form of physical and mental relaxation which is  associated  with changes in the secretion and release of several pituitary hormones. The hormonal changes induced by TM mimic the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is  hypothesized that TM produces changes in pituitary hormone secretion by enhancing hypothalamic GABAergic tone, and its anxiolytic effects by promoting GABAergic tone in specific areas of the brain.  This mechanism is similar to the effects of synthetic anxiolytic and tranquilizing agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to components of the GABA-A (GABAA) receptor. TM, therefore, may  produce relaxation by enhancing the effects of an endogenous neurotransmitter analogous to the effects of endorphins in runners who reportedly experience a 'runner's high'.


Meditation: a modulator of the immune response to physical stress? A brief  report.

Br J Sports Med 1995 Dec; 29(4): 255-7    (ISSN: 0306-3674)

Solberg EE; Halvorsen R; Sundgot-Borgen J; Ingjer F; Holen A

 Department of Medicine, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that stress reducing techniques such as meditation alter immune   responses after strenous physical stress. METHODS: The hypothesis was tested by studying six   meditating and six non-meditating male runners in a concurrent, controlled design. After a period of six   months with meditation for the experimental group, blood samples were taken immediately before and  after a maximum oxygen uptake test (VO2max). RESULTS: The increase in CD8+ T cells after  VO2max  was significantly less in the meditation group than in the control group (P = 0.04). The  amount of CD2+ cells doubled after VO2max, mainly because of a rise in the CD8+ fraction.  CONCLUSIONS:  Meditation may modify the suppressive influence of strenous physical stress on the  immune system.


Use of transcendental meditation to relieve stress and promote health.

 Br J Nurs 1995 Mar 23-Apr 12; 4(6): 315-8    (ISSN: 0966-0461)

Knight S

 The relief of stress is an important part of health promotion. This article examines the effects of  transcendental meditation on stress and discusses how it can improve health.

 Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice.

 Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 May; 22(4): 277-95    (ISSN: 0306-4530)

 MacLean CR; Walton KG; Wenneberg SR; Levitsky DK; Mandarino JP; Waziri R; Hillis SL;                                     Schneider RH

Center for Health and Ageing Studies, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA.

 Stress has been implicated in both somatic and mental disorders. The mechanisms by which stress leads  to  poor health are largely unknown. However, studies in animals suggest that chronic stress causes high  basal  cortisol and low cortisol response to acute stressors and that such changes may contribute to  disease.  Previous studies of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique as a possible means of  countering  effects of stress have reported altered levels of several hormones both during the practice and longitudinally  after regular practice of this technique. In this prospective, random assignment study,  changes in baseline  levels and acute responses to laboratory stressors were examined for four  hormones-cortisol, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and testosterone-before and after 4 months of either the TM  technique or a stress education control condition. At pre- and post-test, blood was withdrawn continuously through an indwelling catheter, and plasma or serum samples were frozen for later analysis by  radioimmunoassay. The results showed significantly different changes for the two groups, or trends toward  significance, for each hormone over the 4 months. In the TM group, but not in  the controls, basal cortisol  level and average cortisol across the stress session decreased from pre- to post-test. Cortisol responsiveness to stressors, however, increased in the TM group compared to controls. The baselines  and/or stress responsiveness for TSH and GH changed in opposite directions for the groups, as did the testosterone baseline. Overall, the cortisol and testosterone results appear to support previous data  suggesting that repeated practice of the TM technique reverses effects of chronic stress significant for health. The observed group difference in the change of GH regulation may derive from the cortisol  differences, while the TSH results are not related easily to earlier findings on the effects of chronic stress.


Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and transcendental meditation (TM)  practice: the basis for a neural model of TM practice.

Conscious Cogn 1999 Sep; 8(3): 302-18    (ISSN: 1053-8100)

Travis F; Wallace RK

 Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa 52557, USA.

 In this single-blind within-subject study, autonomic and EEG variables were compared during 10-min,  order-balanced eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) sessions. TM sessions were  distinguished by (1) lower breath rates, (2) lower skin conductance levels, (3) higher respiratory sinus  arrhythmia levels, and (4) higher alpha anterior-posterior and frontal EEG coherence. Alpha power was not  significantly different between conditions. These results were seen in the first minute and were maintained  throughout the 10-min sessions. TM practice appears to (1) lead to a state fundamentally different than  eyes-closed rest; (2) result in a cascade of events in the central and autonomic nervous systems, leading to  a rapid change in state (within a minute) that was maintained throughout the TM session; and (3) be best  distinguished from other conditions through autonomic and EEG alpha coherence patterns rather than alpha  power. Two neural networks that may mediate these effects are suggested. The rapid shift in physiological  functioning within the first minute might be mediated by a "neural switch" in prefrontal areas inhibiting  activity in specific and nonspecific thalamocortical circuits. The resulting "restfully alert" state might be  sustained by a basal ganglia-corticothalamic threshold regulation mechanism automatically maintaining lower levels of cortical excitability. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.


The fourth state of consciousness: the Thuriya Avastha.

 Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995 May; 49(2): 107-10    (ISSN: 1323-1316)

Ramamurthi B

Neurosurgical Centre, Voluntary Health Services, Madras, India.

Present day neurophysiology stops with attributing thinking processes as the highest level of function of the  brain. It has been common knowledge to oriental thinkers for many centuries, that there are many further states of the human mind, culminating in the state of thoughtless awareness; the fourth state of   consciousness. This state must have a physiological basis. The complicated structure of the brain, the  extravagant abundance of neural and glial elements in the brain, the infinite possibilities of synaptic junctions  and synaptic transmission, and the multitude of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; all these point to  the definite possibility of a much greater level of performance and achievement for the human brain than has  been apparent so far. Not only the theories but also the experience of Eastern seers have shown that the brain can transcend the boundaries of logic and reason, and experience states of awareness, commonly  unrecognized. In the past few decades, knowledge about the functioning of the human brain has been  growing exponentially and scientists of diverse disciplines are concentrating on unraveling its mysteries. It is  necessary for scientists to investigate this state with all available tools and find the neurophysiological basis of this state.Bild der Wissenschaft: TICKER-Meldung vom 29.8.2000



Yoga gut gegen Bluthochdruck und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankung

Meditieren und Yoga senken Bluthochdruck und beugen Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen vor. Dies bestätigen zwei separate Studien in Atlanta (USA) und Neu Dehli. Einzelheiten in der neuesten Ausgabe  der Münchner Zeitschrift Ärztliche Praxis Nr. 69, S. 10.

Yoga oder Transzendentale Meditation bewirkten eine signifikante Senkung des Blutdrucks bei 84  Hypertonikern (Atlanta)und 42 Männern mit Schäden an den Herzkranzgefäßen (Neu Delhi). Die indischen Yoga-Patienten hatten ein Jahr lang täglich 90 Minuten Yoga betrieben, hatten danach weniger  Brustschmerzen, sie wogen weniger, hatten geringere Cholesterin-Werte, weniger arteriosklerotische Ablagerungen und eine größere Leistungsfähigkeit als die Probanden der Kontrollgruppe.

Bei der US-Studie hatten 84 Bluthochdruck-Patienten 13 Wochen lang trainiert, ihre Aggressionen durch Meditieren abzubauen. Danach war der Blutdruck deutlich geringer. Diese Ergebnisse sollen jetzt durch  Langzeituntersuchungen überprüft und in anderen Kombinationen unterschiedlicher Behandlungsansätze verstärkt werden. Die Wissenschaftler zeigten sich überzeugt, dass Yoga und Meditation sowohl Gefäße  als auch das Herz schützen.

[Quelle: bdw]


Ärztliche Praxis, Nr. 69, S. 10


Auch Meditieren schützt Herz und Gefäße

 Yoga senkt den Blutdruck

 ATLANTA/DELHI - Taugen Transzendentale Meditation (TM), Aggressions-Management und Yoga als Therapien, um  Herz-Kreislauf-Erkankungen positiv zu beeinflussen? Durchaus, meinen Forscher aus entgegengesetzten Gegenden  der Welt. Sie konnten zeigen, dass mit diesen Methoden erhöhter Blutdruck sinkt und sogar Patienten mit koronarer Herzkrankheit (KHK) fitter bleiben.

Änderungen des Verhaltens und des Lebensstils senken den Blutdruck von Hypertonikern signifikant, weisen die  Ergebnisse der HEAD SMART-Studie (Health Education and Diet, Stress Management and Anger Reduction Therapy) aus.

Bei Patienten, die drei Monate lang an einer Schulung in Sachen Aggressions-Management und an TM teilnahmen, sei  der systolische Blutdruck um 12 mmHg, der diastolische um 7 bis 8 mmHg, gesunken, erläutert Studienleiterin Prof. Dr.  Charlie Lollies von der Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta/Georgia. Bei den Teilnehmern, die ausschließlich über  gesunde Lebensweise und Ernährung unterrichtet wurden, wiesen die Forscher Blutdruck-Senkungen um durchschnittlich 8 mmHg systolisch und 6 mmHg diastolisch nach.

Dr. S. C. Manchanda und sein Team vom All lndia Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, stellten fest, dass Arteriosklerose  langsamer fortschreitet, wenn sich Patienten täglich in Yoga üben. 42 Männer mit fortgeschrittener KHK wurden  angehalten, ihre Ernährung umzustellen und die bekannten Risikofaktoren zu reduzieren. Außerdem erhielten alle  Teilnehmer weiterhin ihre Medikamente. Eine Gruppe nahm zusätzlich täglich 90 Minuten an Yoga-Übungen teil.

Nach einem Jahr waren die Patienten der Yoga-Gruppe deutlich leistungsfähiger und erlitten signifikant seltener  Brustschmerzen als die körperlich inaktiven Teilnehmer. Außerdem brachten die Schüler der Sanskrit-Lehren weniger  Körpergewicht auf die Waage und hatten deutlich niedrigere Cholesterin-Werte. Angiographisch erwies sich, dass die  arteriosklerotischen Plaques bei den Yoga Praktizierenden geringer ausgeprägt waren als in der Vergleichsgruppe. Die  Forscher fassen zusammen: ,,Yoga ist ein brauchbarer Weg, um Patienten mit fortgeschrittener KHK zu behandeln."


Anna Bünner